How does fat get absorbed and stored as fat?

Fat is absorbed in the intestine contained in chylomicrons and then secreted into lymphatics (1). The lymphatics drain the intestine, then lead to the thoracic duct and deliver the chylomicrons into the blood at a site of rapid blood flow (1). The rapidity is necessary to distribute the chylomicrons well preventing them from coalescing (1).Continue reading “How does fat get absorbed and stored as fat?”

Levels of consciousness (and no, I’m not Deepak Chopra)

Odd as it is to measure something like consciousness, it is a must to determine a possible medical condition, and the levels must be precise to give an accurate status before and after treatment (1). A state of consciousness can indicate a person’s wakefulness, awareness and alertness (2). Consciousness may “lower” a level or moreContinue reading “Levels of consciousness (and no, I’m not Deepak Chopra)”

Don’t depend on Glasgow Coma Scale

The Glasgow Coma Scale is easy to use for almost anyone to determine the state of a head injury. It includes eye, verbal and motor responses (see But it should be clear that it should not be the only test used. This was a hard lesson for the medics that treated Natasha Richardson afterContinue reading “Don’t depend on Glasgow Coma Scale”

Neural tube defects may not be related to high sugar intake

High glycemic load was previously thought to increase risk of neural tube defects after California researchers found that there appeared to be an association with maternal diets high in sugar in their state (1). However, the more recent National Birth Defects Prevention Study has found that the association does not exist among national population andContinue reading “Neural tube defects may not be related to high sugar intake”

MS patients can look forward to stem cell therapy

Stem cell therapy may be the treatment of the future for severe multiple sclerosis patients. Swedish researchers reported last February that bone marrow stem cell transplantation was successful for treating severe multiple sclerosis (1). The researchers found improvement in symptoms after testing the therapy for five years on nine patients with severe MS, ages betweenContinue reading “MS patients can look forward to stem cell therapy”

Feel down in the dumps? Could be Alzheimer’s disease

Lack of motivation may serve as a diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. According to a discussion during the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium earlier this month, the apathy may be caused by functional impairment (1). The researchers noted that reduced “goal-oriented behavior, goal-directed cognitive activity and emotions” must persist over time, thought to be “at leastContinue reading “Feel down in the dumps? Could be Alzheimer’s disease”

Why insulin is key for intracellular protein synthesis

When you’ve just eaten some protein, insulin, glucagon, growth hormone and glucocorticoids increase because of the presence of elevated amino acid concentration (1p232). The insulin promotes the protein synthesis and the other hormones have an opposite effect (1p232). Growth hormone is anabolic like insulin, although counterregulatory (1p232). Insulin to glucagon ratio favoring insulin stimulates proteinContinue reading “Why insulin is key for intracellular protein synthesis”