Grape seed extract slows oxidation of LDL

We know that antioxidants such as vitamin E may slow development of atherosclerosis by reducing oxidation of LDL (1). So I bring to your attention a just-released study of note on antioxidant procyanidins of grape seed extract (2). The study was proposes a “corrective role” of the procyanidins on foam cells because of results inContinue reading “Grape seed extract slows oxidation of LDL”

What happens when you are acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficient?

Without acyl CoA dehydrogenase to initiate the first step of mitochondrial beta-oxidation, your ability to metabolize fats is inhibited (1). That is, the enzyme—one of four depending on fatty acid chain lengths—catalyzes the formation of the double bond between alpha- and beta-carbons, which then are degraded to two-carbon acetyl CoA units (1p159). Because the bodyContinue reading “What happens when you are acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficient?”

Blaming Burger King: The Genesis of Atherogenesis

In a previous post I wrote of my grandpa who eventually died of a myocardial infarction resulting from atherosclerosis, of which I attribute to a diet of $1 Whoppers. So cheap, so tempting was this Burger King specialty that it is perhaps what also took my grandmother via cardiovascular disease. Apart from a “whopping” amountContinue reading “Blaming Burger King: The Genesis of Atherogenesis”

Type 1 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia

When uncontrolled type 1 diabetes takes hold, then insulin isn’t around to induce full activity of lipoprotein lipase, which is the enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL to produce fatty acids (1-2). The VLDL cholesterol becomes overproduced and then lipoproteins rich in triglycerides tend to produce hyperglyceridemia (1;3-4). To diagnose the condition aContinue reading “Type 1 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia”

Why a carb-free diet?

OK, let’s talk about what happens when on a carb-free diet. Normally the diet would not be recommended. Here’s why: Without carbs the liver can do fine using fatty acids converted to triacylglycerols and phospholipids for oxidation in hepatocyte mitochondria (1p167), but the brain and muscles want glucose and, thus, gluconeogenesis occurs using up lactateContinue reading “Why a carb-free diet?”

"Classic" versus "modified" carb loading

In the 1960s Scandinavian scientists researched carb loading and found you could doulbe glycogen stores by doing the following (1p270): Two sessions of intense exercise to exhaustion to deplete glycogen Two days of less than 10 percent carbs to effectively “starve” muscle Three days of rest while taking in 90 percent or more carbs WhileContinue reading “"Classic" versus "modified" carb loading”

When gramps has hypoglycemia

Growing up, whenever I visited my grandpa’s place, he had snacks all around the house. I remember that he ate all day, but never ate a full dinner. And here’s why: The human body runs on carbohydrates as its main fuel, thus, carbs are our primary macronutrients (1p105). Glucose is the most important carbohydrate becauseContinue reading “When gramps has hypoglycemia”

How to avoid AGE-ing

Hyperglycemia causes yet more complications on cells because it increases formation of advanced glycation end (AGE) products (1-5). AGE products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between reducing sugars and proteins, lipoproteins and nucleic acids and, in consequence, increase susceptibility to oxidative stress (1-5). These AGE products are thought to accelerate “vascular cell aging” resulting inContinue reading “How to avoid AGE-ing”

Why Type 1 diabetics need insulin injections

Type 1 diabetics require insulin injections because of failure of beta-cells of the pancrease to produce and secrete insulin (1). Thus, insulin injections play a vital role for being sure glucose metabolism is regulated and, effectively, lowering blood glucose (1). The insulin increases glucose oxidation, glycogen deposition, lipogenesis, protein synthesis and cell replication (1). Insulin’sContinue reading “Why Type 1 diabetics need insulin injections”