The four reactions of beta-oxidation

Fatty acid oxidation is dependent on entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria, which provides substrate for beta-oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix. The fatty acids are transported in as acylcarnitines. Step 1 in beta-oxidation happens when a fatty acyl CoA that’s made at the inner surface of the inner mitochondrial membraine is oxidized by acyl-CoAContinue reading “The four reactions of beta-oxidation”

Fighting a Losing War That Must Be Won

Once the “war on cancer” was declared in 1971 by Congress, researchers have sought to defeat it (1), but after losses of many knights in shining armor, a newfound respect has come around for this dragon of a disease (1). In the 1990s and 2000s, however, a new sense of hope had come about. “EndContinue reading “Fighting a Losing War That Must Be Won”

Mutagenic Metals

The biochemical mechanism by which metals are mutagenic is by their effects on DNA. The main pathway shared by iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt is by redox-cycling reactions and mercury, cadmium and nickel by depleting glutathione and bonding to sulfihydryl groups (1). Free iron, in particular, can cause oxidative damage on DNA that canContinue reading “Mutagenic Metals”

Ca and Mg balance

Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are non-heavy metals with the same valence charge that are both critical for physiologic function, yet overlap each other in their mechanisms. For example, they both use the same transport systems in kidney competing with each other for absorption. They also oppose one another in blood coagulation, smooth muscle contractionContinue reading “Ca and Mg balance”

Estrogen & Osteoporosis

Estrogen appears to directly influence bone turnover. Its mechanism is byacting on estrogen receptors in bone cells (1). The hormone influencesvitamin D metabolism by increasing conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25OHD) to 1,25-(0H)2D as it does in birds (2). The increase of 1,25-(0H)2D then enhances calcium absorption in the bones(2). Estrogen, thereby, contributes to bone density byContinue reading “Estrogen & Osteoporosis”

DHA May Assist in Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease

Summary: Complementary preventive therapy for Alzheimer’s disease should include DHA for its biochemical implications, especially in apoE4-genotype obese-diabetic patients. DHA mechanisms involve reducing adiposity and secretions, improving insulin sensitivity, guarding against oxidative stress, and guarding against beta-amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangles and advanced glycation end-products. Background: Urgent Call for Alzheimer’s Disease Preventive Therapies Foresight warns thatContinue reading “DHA May Assist in Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease”

Armour Thyroid vs Synthroid

Armour thyroid is the “natural” therapy from dessicated porcine thyroid gland while Synthroid is produced synthetically as levothyroxine. Armour thyroid contains both T3 and T4 while Synthroid only contains T4. There is debate on whether or not use of both or one is better. Synthroid came into use because it was standardized unlike the naturalContinue reading “Armour Thyroid vs Synthroid”

What Controls Basal Metabolic Rate

To regulate basal metabolic rate, the thyroid gland synthesizes hormones thyroxine, or triiodo-L-thyronine (T4), and the more active triiodo-L-tyronine (T3) (1).When secreted into the bloodstream, they associate with transport proteins (thyroxine-binding globulin, albumin, and transthyretin), which circulate the hormones (2). There is nearly 50 times T4 than there is T3, but T3 is more potent.Continue reading “What Controls Basal Metabolic Rate”

Korsakoff syndrome

Korsakoff’s syndrome, or Wernicke encephalopathy, is a serious neurological disorder occurring under conditions of thiamine deficiency. It’s usually caused by long-term abuse of alcohol, which breaks down thiamine in the body. It is characterized at autopsy by lesions in the brain stem. Thiamine is necessary for proper glucose metabolism in the brain (1). As aContinue reading “Korsakoff syndrome”