Emergency contraception and ectopic pregnancy

One of the worst risks of emergency contraception is possible failure leading to ectopic pregnancy. Yes, it can occur, according to Indian researchers from All India Institute of Medical Sciences (1). A case report in 2001 occurred as a result of the use of levonorgestrel (1). For the most part, however, levonorgestrel is considered safeContinue reading “Emergency contraception and ectopic pregnancy”

Dysmenorrhea news

Endometriosis can ultimately result in causing dysmenorrhea (1). According to Chinese researchers, there has been conflicting reports leading to debate about the actual relationship, but statistical models suggest a stage and site of the endometriotic lesions (1). According to the researchers, there is still variation recognized and further research is needed (1). Reference List 1.Continue reading “Dysmenorrhea news”

Increased Intracranial Pressure

Although its name sounds as though it may occur from studying for a pathophysiology exam, increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) actually is associated with impaired cerebral venous drainage and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (1). The potential complication can come from a variety of pathologies including central nervous system edema, tumor masses, hematoma, hydrocephalus, venous obstructionContinue reading “Increased Intracranial Pressure”

Post-32-HyperPsychoProteinuria Stages 1 and 2

When a woman reaches 32 weeks into a first pregnancy, it’s possible that a peculiar syndrome may occur—possibly due to loss of a genetic imprinting in placental tissues (1)—that appears to originate from an implantation abnormality (1). The abnormality causes ischemia in placental blood vessels and could potentially cause a placental infarct, but usually triggersContinue reading “Post-32-HyperPsychoProteinuria Stages 1 and 2”

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism is not as common as hyperparathyroidism and is characterized by secretion of low levels of parathyroid hormone (1). The disorder can be result of removal of parathyroid glands, the glands’ possible autoimmune destruction, or, in some genetic cases, when the kidney is insensitive to parathyroid output (1). When low parathyroid hormone occurs, hypocalcemia andContinue reading “Hypoparathyroidism”

Too many bananas

Hyperkalemia is a result of potassium excess. It can be result of aldosterone deficiency causing potassium retention (too little excretion in the kidneys) (1p435). Also possible trauma that damages cells could cause released potassium to overload kidneys (1p435). Reference List 1. Nowak TJ, Handford AG. Pathophysiology: Concepts and Applications for Health Professionals. New York: McGraw-Hill,Continue reading “Too many bananas”

A horse named charley

Although we may fight for it, in the end we just can’t stop people from naming their horses “Charlie”. But maybe we can help them with an involuntary contraction or spasm causing a muscle cramp, sometimes called a “charley horse”. Usually they occur due to an overused or injured muscle, but can also be causedContinue reading “A horse named charley”

Respiratory vs metabolic acidosis

The symptoms of respiratory and metabolic acidosis are pretty similar. In both you see generalized weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and CNS depression (1). How does a blood test distinguish from the two? Respiratory acidosis differs from metabolic acidosis because it is a result of impaired pulmonary function causing a build-up of CO2 that lowers pHContinue reading “Respiratory vs metabolic acidosis”

Not enough bananas

Potassium, the main cation in the cells, is often lost through perspiration, feces and urine (1). A deficit of potassium is called hypokalemia (1). Hypokalemia may occur simply due to inadequate dietary potassium intake, although it is more likely due to a case where there is excessive loss of potassium (1). Various reasons can causeContinue reading “Not enough bananas”

Nephrotic versus nephritic syndrome

Both glomerular disorders cause impaired filtration in the kidneys. The nephrotic syndrome is a condition of large-scale proteinuria (1p405). Its cause is damaged glomeruli that are unable to retain protein resulting in hypoalbuminea that creates a fall in blood osmotic pressure and systemic edema (1p405). Hyperlipidemia also occurs because of increased liver synthesis of lipoproteinContinue reading “Nephrotic versus nephritic syndrome”